Moroccan Sahara - Overview
The Kingdom of Morocco holds, in the history of colonization as well as in the decolonization process, an exceptional experience, that deviates from the usual pattern applicable to other countries. In 1912, the Moroccan territory was, in fact, split up into several zones of occupation. Forty years later, the Kingdom of Morocco started to recover, gradually and through international agreements negotiated with the various colonial powers, its territorial integrity. It was in this context, that Morocco, after its independence in 1956, launched negotiations with Spain, that brought about the progressive recovery of certain parts, located in the south of the Kingdom, namely Tarfaya in 1958, Sidi Ifni in 1969 and the Saquiet al Hamra and Oued Eddahab region, known more as the Sahara, in 1975, by virtue of the Madrid Agreement, acknowledged by the General Assembly.
For geopolitical reasons related to the Cold War context, Algeria stood against the process of completion of Morocco’s territorial integrity, and got involved in a deliberate policy, to systematically thwart the legitimate rights of the Kingdom.
The African mediation, undertaken in 1976, having failed, the Sahara issue was entrusted to the UN.